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Shortlist of cellular cancer vaccines proposed for the upgrade according to antigenic essence technology

Shortlist is also available for download in pdf format.
1. Habal, N.; Gupta, R.K.; Bilchik, A.J.; Yee, R.; Leopoldo, Z.; Ye, W.; Elashoff, R.M.; Morton, D.L. CancerVax, an allogeneic tumor cell vaccine, induces specific humoral and cellular immune responses in advanced colon cancer. Ann. Surg. Oncol. 2001, 8, 389–401.

2. Vermorken, J.B.; Claessen, A.M.E.; Van Tinteren, H.; Gall, H.E.; Ezinga, R.; Meijer, S.; Scheper, R.J.; Meijer, C.J.L.M.; Bloemena, E.; Ransom, J.H.; et al. Active specific immunotherapy for stage II and stage III human colon cancer: A randomised trial. Lancet 1999, 353, 345–350.

3. Emens, L.A.; Armstrong, D.; Biedrzycki, B.; Davidson, N.; Davis-Sproul, J.; Fetting, J.; Jaffee, E.; Onners, B.; Piantadosi, S.; Reilly, R.T.; et al. A phase I vaccine safety and chemotherapy dose-finding trial of an allogeneic GM-CSF-secreting breast cancer vaccine given in a specifically timed sequence with immunomodulatory doses of cyclophosphamide and doxorubicin. Hum. Gene Ther. 2004, 15, 313–337.

4. Dols, A.; Smith, J.W.; Meijer, S.L.; Fox, B.A.; Hu, H.M.; Walker, E.; Rosenheim, S.; Moudgil, T.; Doran, T.; Wood, W.; et al. Vaccination of women with metastatic breast cancer, using a costimulatory gene (CD80)-modified, HLA-A2-matched, allogeneic, breast cancer cell line: Clinical and immunological results. Hum. Gene Ther. 2003, 14, 1117–1123.

5. Emens, L.A.; Asquith, J.M.; Leatherman, J.M.; Kobrin, B.J.; Petrik, S.; Laiko, M.; Levi, J.; Daphtary, M.M.; Biedrzycki, B.; Wolff, A.C.; et al. Timed sequential treatment with cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, and an allogeneic granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor - secreting breast tumor vaccine: A chemotherapy dose-ranging factorial study of safety and immune activation. J. Clin. Oncol. 2009, 27, 5911–5918.

6. Chen, G.; Gupta, R.; Petrik, S.; Laiko, M.; Leatherman, J.M.; Asquith, J.M.; Daphtary, M.M.; Garrett-Mayer, E.; Davidson, N.E.; Hirt, K.; et al. A feasibility study of cyclophosphamide, trastuzumab, and an allogeneic GM-CSF-secreting breast tumor vaccine for HER2+ metastatic breast cancer. Cancer Immunol. Res. 2014, 2, 949–961.

7. Gückel, B.; Stumm, S.; Rentzsch, C.; Marmé, A.; Mannhardt, G.; Wallwiener, D. A CD80-transfected human breast cancer cell variant induces HER-2/neu-specific T cells in HLA-A*02-matched situations in vitro as well as in vivo. Cancer Immunol. Immunother. 2005, 54, 129–140.

8. Berd, D.; Sato, T.; Maguire, H.C.; Kairys, J.; Mastrangelo, M.J. Immunopharmacologic analysis of an autologous, hapten-modified human melanoma vaccine. J. Clin. Oncol. 2004, 22, 403–415.

9. Hirschowitz, E.A.; Foody, T.; Hidalgo, G.E.; Yannelli, J.R. Immunization of NSCLC patients with antigen-pulsed immature autologous dendritic cells. Lung Cancer 2007, 57, 365–372.

10. Pruitt, S.K.; Kirk, A.D.; Bollinger, R.R.; Marsh, H.C.; Collins, B.H.; Levin, J.L.; Mault, J.R.; Heinle, J.S.; Ibrahim, S.; Rudolph, A.R.; et al. The effect of soluble complement receptor type 1 on hyperacute rejection of porcine xenografts. Transplantation 1994, 57, 363–370.

11. Lai, L.; Kolber-Simonds, D.; Park, K.W.; Cheong, H.T.; Greenstein, J.L.; Im, G.S.; Samuel, M.; Bonk, A.; Rieke, A.; Day, B.N.; et al. Production of α-1,3-galactosyltransferase knockout pigs by nuclear transfer cloning. Science 2002, 295, 1089–1092.

12. Hirschowitz, E.A.; Mullins, A.; Prajapati, D.; Baeker, T.; Kloecker, G.; Foody, T.; Damron, K.; Love, C.; Yannelli, J.R. Pilot study of 1650-G: A simplified cellular vaccine for lung cancer. J. Thorac. Oncol. 2011, 6, 169–173.

13. Nemunaitis, J.; Jahan, T.; Ross, H.; Sterman, D.; Richards, D.; Fox, B.; Jablons, D.; Aimi, J.; Lin, A.; Hege, K. Phase 1/2 trial of autologous tumor mixed with an allogeneic GVAX® vaccine in advanced-stage non-small-cell lung cancer. Cancer Gene Ther. 2006, 13, 555–562.

14. Nemunaitis, J.; Dillman, R.O.; Schwarzenberger, P.O.; Senzer, N.; Cunningham, C.; Cutler, J.; Tong, A.; Kumar, P.; Pappen, B.; Hamilton, C.; et al. Phase II study of belagenpumatucel-L, a transforming growth factor beta-2 antisense gene-modified allogeneic tumor cell vaccine in non-small-cell lung cancer. J. Clin. Oncol. 2006, 24, 4721–4730.

15. Nemunaitis, J.; Nemunaitis, M.; Senzer, N.; Snitz, P.; Bedell, C.; Kumar, P.; Pappen, B.; Maples, P.B.; Shawler, D.; Fakhrai, H. Phase II trial of Belagenpumatucel-L, a TGF-Β2 antisense gene modified allogeneic tumor vaccine in advanced non small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients. Cancer Gene Ther. 2009, 16, 620–624.

16. Giaccone, G.; Bazhenova, L.A.; Nemunaitis, J.; Tan, M.; Juhász, E.; Ramlau, R.; Van Den Heuvel, M.M.; Lal, R.; Kloecker, G.H.; Eaton, K.D.; et al. A phase III study of belagenpumatucel-L, an allogeneic tumour cell vaccine, as maintenance therapy for non-small cell lung cancer. Eur. J. Cancer 2015, 51, 2321–2329.

17. Raez, L.E.; Cassileth, P.A.; Schlesselman, J.J.; Sridhar, K.; Padmanabhan, S.; Fisher, E.Z.; Baldie, P.A.; Podack, E.R. Allogeneic vaccination with a B7.1 HLA-A gene-modified adenocarcinoma cell line in patients with advanced non-small-cell lung cancer. J. Clin. Oncol. 2004, 22, 2800–2807.

18. Raez, L.E.; Walker, G.R.; Baldie, P.; Fisher, E.; Gomez, J.E.; Tolba, K.; Santos, E.S.; Podack, E.R. CD8 T cell response in a phase I study of therapeutic vaccination of advanced NSCLC with allogeneic tumor cells secreting endoplasmic reticulum-chaperone gp96-Ig-peptide complexes. Adv. Lung Cancer 2013, 2, 9–18.

19. Mitchell, M.S.; Kan-Mitchell, J.; Kempf, R.A.; Harel, W.; Shau, H.; Lind, S. Active Specific Immunotherapy for Melanoma: Phase I Trial of Allogeneic Lysates and a Novel Adjuvant. Cancer Res. 1988, 48, 5883–5893.

20. Vaishampayan, U.; Abrams, J.; Darrah, D.; Jones, V.; Mitchell, M.S. Active immunotherapy of metastatic melanoma with allogeneic melanoma lysates and interferon αlpha. Clin. Cancer Res. 2002, 8, 3696–3701.

21. Sosman, J.A.; Unger, J.M.; Liu, P.Y.; Flaherty, L.E.; Park, M.S.; Kempf, R.A.; Thompson, J.A.; Terasaki, P.I.; Sondak, V.K. Adjuvant immunotherapy of resected, intermediate-thickness, node-negative melanoma with an allogeneic tumor vaccine: Impact of HLA class I antigen expression on outcome. J. Clin. Oncol. 2002, 20, 2067–2075.

22. von Euw, E.M.; Barrio, M.M.; Furman, D.; Levy, E.M.; Bianchini, M.; Peguillet, I.; Lantz, O.; Vellice, A.; Kohan, A.; Chacón, M.; et al. A phase I clinical study of vaccination of melanoma patients with dendritic cells loaded with allogeneic apoptotic/necrotic melanoma cells. Analysis of toxicity and immune response to the vaccine and of IL-10-1082 promoter genotype as predictor of disease. J. Transl. Med. 2008, 6, 6.

23. Mordoh, J.; Kairiyama, C.; Bover, L.; Solarolo, E. Allogeneic cells vaccine increases disease-free survival in stage III melanoma patients: A non randomized phase II study. Medicina (B. Aires). 1997, 57, 421–427.

24. Barrio, M.M.; De Motta, P.T.; Kaplan, J.; Von Euw, E.M.; Bravo, A.I.; Chacón, R.D.; Mordoh, J. A phase I study of an allogeneic cell vaccine (VACCIMEL) with GM-CSF in melanoma patients. J. Immunother. 2006, 29, 444–454.

25. Palucka, A.K.; Ueno, H.; Connolly, J.; Kerneis-Norvell, F.; Blanck, J.P.; Johnston, D.A.; Fay, J.; Banchereau, J. Dendritic cells loaded with killed allogeneic melanoma cells can induce objective clinical responses and MART-1 specific CD8+ T-cell immunity. J. Immunother. 2006, 29, 545–557.

26. Berd, D. M-Vax: An autologous, hapten-modified for human cancer. Expert Rev. Vaccines 2004, 2, 335–342.

27. Ribas, A.; Camacho, L.H.; Lee, S.M.; Hersh, E.M.; Brown, C.K.; Richards, J.M.; Rodriguez, M.J.; Prieto, V.G.; Glaspy, J.A.; Oseguera, D.K.; et al. Multicenter phase II study of matured dendritic cells pulsed with melanoma cell line lysates in patients with advanced melanoma. J. Transl. Med. 2010, 8, 89.

28. Aris, M.; Bravo, A.I.; Pampena, M.B.; Blanco, P.A.; Carri, I.; Koile, D.; Yankilevich, P.; Levy, E.M.; Barrio, M.M.; Mordoh, J. Changes in the TCRβ repertoire and tumor immune signature from a cutaneous melanoma patient immunized with the CSF-470 vaccine: A case report. Front. Immunol. 2018, 9, 955.

29. Mordoh, J.; Pampena, M.B.; Aris, M.; Blanco, P.A.; Lombardo, M.; von Euw, E.M.; Keon, S. Mac; Crow, M.Y.; Bravo, A.I.; O'Connor, J.M.; et al. Phase II study of adjuvant immunotherapy with the CSF-470 vaccine plus Bacillus Calmette-Guerin plus recombinant human granulocyte macrophage-colony stimulating factor vs medium-dose Interferon alpha 2B in Stages IIB, IIC, and III cutaneous melanoma patie. Front. Immunol. 2017, 8, 625.

30. Le, D.T.; Lutz, E.; Uram, J.N.; Sugar, E.A.; Onners, B.; Solt, S.; Zheng, L.; Diaz, L.A.; Donehower, R.C.; Jaffee, E.M.; et al. Evaluation of ipilimumab in combination with allogeneic pancreatic tumor cells transfected with a GM-CSF gene in previously treated pancreatic cancer. J. Immunother. 2013, 36, 382–389.

31. Hopkins, A.C.; Yarchoan, M.; Durham, J.N.; Yusko, E.C.; Rytlewski, J.A.; Robins, H.S.; Laheru, D.A.; Le, D.T.; Lutz, E.R.; Jaffee, E.M. T cell receptor repertoire features associated with survival in immunotherapy-treated pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma. JCI insight 2018, 3, 13.

32. Eric, L.; Yeo, C.J.; Lillemoe, K.D.; Biedrzycki, B.; Kobrin, B.; Herman, J.; Sugar, E.; Piantadosi, S.; Cameron, J.L.; Solt, S.; et al. A lethally irradiated allogeneic granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor-secreting tumor vaccine for pancreatic adenocarcinoma: A phase II trial of safety, efficacy, and immune activation. Ann. Surg. 2011, 253, 328–335.

33. Simons, J.W.; Carducci, M.A.; Mikhak, B.; Lim, M.; Biedrzycki, B.; Borellini, F.; Clift, S.M.; Hege, K.M.; Ando, D.G.; Piantadosi, S.; et al. Phase I/II trial of an allogeneic cellular immunotherapy in hormone-naïve prostate cancer. Clin. Cancer Res. 2006, 12, 3394–3401.

34. Small, E.J.; Sacks, N.; Nemunaitis, J.; Urba, W.J.; Dula, E.; Centeno, A.S.; Nelson, W.G.; Ando, D.; Howard, C.; Borellini, F.; et al. Granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor-secreting allogeneic cellular immunotherapy for hormone-refractory prostate cancer. Clin. Cancer Res. 2007, 13, 3883–3891.

35. Van den Eertwegh, A.J.M.; Versluis, J.; Van den Berg, H.P.; Santegoets, S.J.A.M.; Van Moorselaar, R.J.A.; Van der Sluis, T.M.; Gall, H.E.; Harding, T.C.; Jooss, K.; Lowy, I.; et al. Combined immunotherapy with granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor-transduced allogeneic prostate cancer cells and ipilimumab in patients with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer: A phase 1 dose-escalation trial. Lancet Oncol. 2012, 13, 509–517.

36. Higano, C.S.; Corman, J.M.; Smith, D.C.; Centeno, A.S.; Steidle, C.P.; Gittleman, M.; Simons, J.W.; Sacks, N.; Aimi, J.; Small, E.J. Phase 1/2 dose-escalation study of a GM-CSF-secreting, allogeneic, cellular immunotherapy for metastatic hormone-refractory prostate cancer. Cancer 2008, 113, 975–984.

37. Doehn, C.; Böhmer, T.; Jocham, D. Technology evaluation: Onyvax-P, Onyvax. Curr. Opin. Mol. Ther. 2005, 7, 511–519.

38. Brill, T.H.; Kübler, H.R.; Randenborgh, H. V.; Fend, F.; Pohla, H.; Breul, J.; Hartung, R.; Paul, R.; Schendel, D.J.; Gansbacher, B. Allogeneic retrovirally transduced, IL-2- and IFN-γ-secreting cancer cell vaccine in patients with hormone refractory prostate cancer - A phase I clinical trial. J. Gene Med. 2007, 9, 547–560.

39. Brill, T.H.; Kübler, H.R.; Pohla, H.; Buchner, A.; Fend, F.; Schuster, T.; Van Randenborgh, H.; Paul, R.; Kummer, T.; Plank, C.; et al. Therapeutic vaccination with an interleukin-2-interferon-γ-secreting allogeneic tumor vaccine in patients with progressive castration-resistant prostate cancer: A phase I/II trial. Hum. Gene Ther. 2009, 20, 1641–1651.

40. Eaton, J.D.; Perry, M.J.A.; Nicholson, S.; Guckian, M.; Russell, N.; Whelan, M.; Kirby, R.S. Allogeneic whole-cell vaccine: A phase I/II study in men with hormone-refractory prostate cancer. BJU Int. 2002, 89, 19–26.

41. Schijns, V.E.J.C.; Pretto, C.; Devillers, L.; Pierre, D.; Hofman, F.M.; Chen, T.C.; Mespouille, P.; Hantos, P.; Glorieux, P.; Bota, D.A.; et al. First clinical results of a personalized immunotherapeutic vaccine against recurrent, incompletely resected, treatment-resistant glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) tumors, based on combined allo- and auto-immune tumor reactivity. Vaccine 2015, 33, 2690–2696.

42. Westermann, J.; Flörcken, A.; Willimsky, G.; Van Lessen, A.; Kopp, J.; Takvorian, A.; Jöhrens, K.; Lukowsky, A.; Schönemann, C.; Sawitzki, B.; et al. Allogeneic gene-modified tumor cells (RCC-26/IL-7/CD80) as a vaccine in patients with metastatic renal cell cancer: A clinical phase-I study. Gene Ther. 2011, 18, 354–363.

43. Smith, B.D.; Kasamon, Y.L.; Kowalski, J.; Gocke, C.; Murphy, K.; Miller, C.B.; Garrett-Mayer, E.; Tsai, H.L.; Qin, L.; Chia, C.; et al. K562/GM-CSF immunotherapy reduces tumor burden in chronic myeloid leukemia patients with residual disease on imatinib mesylate. Clin. Cancer Res. 2010, 16, 338–347.

44. Okaji, Y.; Tsuno, N.H.; Tanaka, M.; Yoneyama, S.; Matsuhashi, M.; Kitayama, J.; Saito, S.; Nagura, Y.; Tsuchiya, T.; Yamada, J.; et al. Pilot study of anti-angiogenic vaccine using fixed whole endothelium in patients with progressive malignancy after failure of conventional therapy. Eur. J. Cancer 2008, 44, 383–390.